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Asian LNG Buyers Abruptly Change and Lock in Long Term Supply – Validates Supply Gap, Provides Support For Brownfield LNG FIDs

By Dan Tsubouchi

The last 7 days has shown there is a sea change as Asian LNG buyers have made an abrupt change in their LNG contracting and are moving to lock in long term LNG supply. This is the complete opposite of what they were doing pre-Covid when they were trying to renegotiate Qatar LNG long term deals lower and moving away from long term deals to spot/short term sales. Why? We think they did the same math we did in our April 28 blog “Multiple Brownfield LNG FIDs Now Needed To Fill New LNG Supply Gap From Mozambique Chaos? How About LNG Canada Phase 2?” and saw a much bigger and sooner LNG supply gap driven by the delay of 5 bcf/d of Mozambique LNG that was built into most, if not all LNG supply forecasts. Asian LNG buyers are committing real dollars to long term LNG deals, which we believe is the best validation for the LNG supply gap. Another validation, Shell, Total and others are aggressively competing to invest long term capital to partner in Qatar Petroleum’s massive 4.3 bcf/d LNG expansion despite plans to reduce fossil fuels production in the 2020s. And even more importantly to LNG suppliers, the return to long term LNG contracts provides the financing capacity to commit to brownfield LNG FIDs. The abrupt change by Asian LNG buyers to long term contracts is a game changer for LNG markets and sets the stage for brownfield LNG FIDs likely as soon as before year end 2021. It has to be brownfield LNG FIDs if the gap is coming bigger and sooner.  And we return to our April 28 blog point, if brownfield LNG is needed, what about Shell looking at 1.8 bcf/d brownfield LNG Canada Phase 2?  LNG Canada Phase 1 at 1.8 bcf/d capacity is already a material positive for Cdn natural gas producers.  A FID on LNG Canada Phase 2 would be huge, meaning 3.6 bcf/d of Cdn natural gas will be tied to Asian LNG markets and not competing in the US against Henry Hub.  And with a much shorter distance to Asian LNG markets.  This is why we focus on global LNG markets for our views on the future value of Canadian natural gas.

Sea change in Asian LNG buyers is also the best validation of the LNG supply gap and big to LNG supply FIDs.  Has the data changed or have the market participants changed in how they react to the data?  We can’t recall exactly who said that on CNBC on July 12, it’s a question we always ask ourselves.  In the LNG case, the data has changed with Mozambique LNG delays and that has directly resulted in market participants changing and entering into long term contracts.  We can’t stress enough how important it is to see Asian LNG buyers move to long term LNG deals. (i) Validates the sooner and bigger LNG supply gap.  We believe LNG markets should look at the last two weeks of new long term deals for Asian LNG buyers as being the validation of the LNG supply gap that clearly emerged post Total declaring force majeure on its 1.7 bcf/d Mozambique LNG Phase 1 that was under construction and on track for first LNG delivery in 2024.  Since then, markets have started to realize the Mozambique delays are much more than 1.7 bcf/d. They have seen major LNG suppliers change their outlook to a more bullish LNG outlook and, most importantly, are now seeing Asian LNG buyers changing from trying to renegotiate long term LNG deals lower to entering into long term LNG deals to have security of supply.  Asian LNG buyers are cozying up to Qatar in a prelude to the next wave of Asian buyer long term deals.  What better validation is there than companies/countries putting their money where their mouth is. (ii) Provides financial commitment to help push LNG suppliers to FID.  We believe these Asian LNG buyers are doing much more than validating a LNG supply gap to markets. The big LNG suppliers can move to FID based on adding more LNG supply to their portfolio, but having more long term deals provides the financial anchor/visibility to long term capital commitment from the buyers.  Long term contracts will only help LNG suppliers get to FID.

It was always clear that the Mozambique LNG supply delay was 5.0 bcf/d, not just 1.7 bcf/d from Total Phase 1. LNG markets didn’t really react to Total’s April 26 declaration of force majeure on its 1.7 bcf/d Mozambique LNG Phase 1.  This was an under construction project that was on time to deliver first LNG in 2024.  It was in all LNG supply forecasts.  There was no timeline given but, on the Apr 29 Q1 call, Total said that it expected any restart decision would be least a year away. If so, we believe that puts any actual construction at least 18 months away.  There will be work to do just to get back to where they were when they were forced to stop development work on Phase 1.  Surprisingly, markets didn’t look the broader implications, which is why we posted our 7-pg Apr 28 blog “Multiple Brownfield LNG FIDs Now Needed To Fill New LNG Supply Gap From Mozambique Chaos? How About LNG Canada Phase 2?[LINK]  We highlighted that Mozambique LNG delays were actually 5 bcf/d, not 1.7 bcf/d. And this 5 bcf/d of Mozambique LNG supply was built into most, if not all, LNG supply forecasts.  The delay in Total Phase 1 would lead to a commensurate delay in its Mozambique LNG Phase 2 of 1.3 bcf/d. Total Phase 2 was to add 1.3 bcf/d. There was no firm in service date, but it was expected to follow closely behind Phase 1 to maintain services.  That would have put it originally in the 2026/2027 period.  But if Phase 1 is pushed back at least 2 years, so will the follow on Phase 2, so more likely, it will be at least 2028/2029. The assumption for most, if not all, LNG forecasts was that Phase 2 would follow Phase 1. Exxon Rozuma Phase 1 of 2.0 bcf/d continues to be pushed back in timeline especially following Total Phase 1. Exxon’s Mozambique Rozuma Phase 1 LNG will add 2.0 bcf/d and, pre-Covid, was originally expected to be in service in 2025.  The project was being delayed and Total’s force majeure has added to the delays. Rozuma onshore LNG facilities are right by Total. On June 20, we tweeted [LINK] on the Reuters report “Exclusive: Galp says it won’t invest in Rovuma until Mozambique ensures security[LINK].  Galp is one of Exxon’s partners in Rozuma.  Reuters reported that Galp said they won’t invest in Exxon’s Rozuma LNG project until the government ensures security, that this may take a while, they won’t be considering the project until after Total has reliably resumed work on its Phase 1, which likely puts any Rozuma decision until at least end of 2022 at the earliest.  Galp has taken any Rozuma Phase 1 capex out of their new capex plans thru 2025 and will have to take out projects in their capex plan if Rozuma does come back to work.  This puts Rozuma more likely 2028 at the earliest as opposed to before the original expectations of before 2025. Pre-pandemic, Exxon’s March 6, 2019 Investor Day noted their operated Mozambique Rovuma LNG Phase 1 was to be 2 trains each with 1.0 bcf/d capacity for total initial capacity of 2.0 bf/d with FID expected in 2019 and first LNG deliveries sometime before 2025.  LNG forecasts had been assuming Exxon Rozuma would be onstream around 2025. The 2019 FID expectation was later pushed to be expected just before the March 2020 investor day.  But the pandemic hit, and on March 21, 2020, we tweeted [LINK] on the Reuters story “Exclusive: Coronavirus, gas slump put brakes on Exxon’s giant Mozambique LNG plan” [LINK] that noted Exxon was expected to delay the Rovuma FID. There was no timeline, but now, any FID is not expected until late 2022 at the earliest, that would push first LNG likely to at least 2028. What this means is that the Mozambique LNG delays are not 1.7 bcf/d but 5.0 bcf/d of projects that were in all, if not most, LNG supply forecasts. There is much more in our 7-pg blog. But Mozambique is what is driving a much bigger and sooner LNG supply gap starting ~2025 and stronger outlook for LNG prices

One of the reasons why it went under the radar is that major LNG suppliers played stupid on the Mozambique impact. It makes it harder for markets to see a big deal when the major LNG suppliers weren’t making a big deal of Mozambique or playing stupid in the case of Cheniere in their May 4 Q1 call.  In our May 9, 2021 Energy Tidbits memo, we said we had to chuckle when we saw Cheniere’s response in the Q&A to its Q1 call on May 4 that they only know what we know from reading the Total releases on Mozambique and its impact on LNG markets.  It’s why we tweeted [LINK]Hmm! $LNG says only know what we read on #LNG market impact from $TOT $XOM MZ LNG delays. Surely #TohokuElectric & other offtake buyers are reaching out to #Cheniere. MZ LNG delays is a game changer to LNG in 2020s, see SAF Group blog. Thx @olympe_mattei @TheTerminal  #NatGas”.  How could they not be talking to LNG buyers for Total and /or Exxon Mozambique LNG projects. In the Q1 Q&A, mgmt was asked about Mozambique and didn’t know any more than what you or I have read. Surely, they were speaking to Asian LNG buyers who had planned to get LNG supply from Total Mozambique or Exxon Rozuma Mozambique or both.  Mgmt is asked “wanted to just kind of touch on the color use talking about for these supply curve. And are you able to kind of provide any thoughts on the Mozambique and a deferral with the project of that size on 13 and TPA being deferred by we see you have you noticed any impact to the market has is there any impact for stage 3 with that capacity? Thanks.” Mgmt replies “No. Look, I only know about the Mozambique delay with what I read as well as what you read that from total and an Exxon. And it’s a sad situation and I hope everybody is safe and healthy that were there to experience that unrest but no I don’t think it’s, again it’s a different business paradigm than what we offer. So, we offer a full value product, the customer doesn’t have to invest in equity, customer doesn’t have to worry about the E&P side of the business because, we’ve been able to both the by at our peak almost 7 Dee’s a day of US NAT gas from almost a 100 different producers on 26 different pipelines and deliver it to our to facilities. So we take care of a lot of what the customer needs”.

There are other LNG supply delays/interruptions beyond Mozambique. There have been a number of other smaller LNG delay or existing supply interruptions that add to Asian LNG buyers feeling less secure about the reliability of mid to long term LNG supply.  Here are just a few examples. (i) Total Papua LNG 0.74 bcf/d. On June 8, we tweeted [LINK] “Timing update Papua #LNG project.  $OSH June 8 update “2022 FEED, 2023 FID targeting 2027 first gas”.  $TOT May 5 update didn’t forecast 1st gas date. Papua is 2 trains w/ total capacity 0.74 bcf/d.”  We followed the tweet saying [LINK] “Bigger #LNG supply gap being created >2025. Papua #LNG originally expected FID in 2020 so 1st LNG is 2 years delayed. Common theme – new LNG supply is being delayed ie. [Total] Mozambique. Don’t forget need capacity>demand due to normal maintenance, etc. Positive for LNG.”  (ii) Chevron’s Gorgon. A big LNG story in H2/20 was the emergence of weld quality issues in the propane heat exchangers at Train 2, which required additional downtime for repair.  Train 2 was shut on May 23 with an original restart of July 11, but the repairs to the weld quality issues meant it didn’t restart until late Nov.  The same issue was found in Train 1 but repairs were completed.  However extended downtime for the trains led to lower LNG volumes.  Gorgon produced ~2.3 bcf/d in 2019 but was down to 2.0 bcf/d in 2020. (iii) Equinor’s Melkoeya 0.63 bcf/d shut down for 18 months due to a fire. A massive fire led to the Sept 28, 2020 shutdown of the 0.63 bcf/d Melkoeya LNG facility in Norway. On April 26, Equinor released “Revised start-up date for Hammerfest LNG[LINK] with regard to the 0.63 bcf/d Melkoeya LNG facility.  The original restart date was Oct 1, 2021 (ie. a 12 month shut down), but Equinor said “Due to the comprehensive scope of work and Covid-19 restrictions, the revised estimated start-up date is set to 31 March 2022”.  When we read the release, it seemed like Equinor was almost setting the stage for another potential delay in the restart date.  Equinor had two qualifiers to this March 31, 2022 restart date. Equinor said “there is still some uncertainty related to the scope of the work” and “Operational measures to handle the Covid-19 situation have affected the follow-up progress after the fire. The project for planning and carrying out repairs of the Hammerfest LNG plant must always comply with applicable guidelines for handling the infection situation in society. The project has already introduced several measures that allow us to have fewer workers on site at the same time than previously expected. There is still uncertainty related to how the Covid-19 development will impact the project progress.” 

Cheniere stopped the game playing the game on June 30. Our July 4, 2021 Energy Tidbits memo noted that it looks like Cheniere has stopped playing stupid with respect to the strengthening LNG market in 2021.  We can’t believe they thought they were fooling anyone, especially their competitors. Bu that week, they came out talking about how commercial discussions have picked up in 2021 and it’s boosted their hope for a Texas (Corpus Christi)  LNG expansion. On Wednesday, Platts reported “Pickup in commercial talks boosts Cheniere’s hopes on mid-scale LNG project[LINK]  Platts wrote “Cheniere Energy expects to make a “substantial dent” by the end of 2022 in building sufficient buyer support for a proposed mid-scale expansion at the site of its Texas liquefaction facility, Chief Commercial Officer Anatol Feygin said June 30 in an interview.” “ As a result, he said, ” The commercial engagement, I think it is very fair to say, has really picked up steam, and we are quite optimistic over the coming 12-18 months to make a substantial dent in that Stage 3 commercialization.”   Platts also reported that Cheniere noted this has been a tightening market all year (ie would have been known by the May 4 Q1 call). Platts wrote “We obviously find ourselves at the beginning of this year and throughout in a very tight market where prices today into Asia and into Europe are at levels that we frankly haven’t seen in a decade-plus,” Feygin said. “We’ve surpassed the economics that the industry saw post the Fukushima tragedy in March 2011, and that’s happened in the shoulder period.”  It’s a public stance as to a more bullish LNG outlook

But we still see major LNG suppliers like Australia hinting but not outright saying that LNG supply gap is coming sooner.  We have to believe Australia will be unveiling a sooner LNG supply gap in their September forecast.  On June 28, we tweeted [LINK] on Australia’s Resources and Energy Quarterly released on Monday [LINK] because there was a major change to their LNG outlook versus their March forecast. We tweeted “#LNGSupplyGap. AU June fcast now sees #LNG mkt tighten post 2023 vs Mar fcast excess supply thru 2026. Why? $TOT Mozambique delays. See below SAF Apr 28 blog. Means brownfield LNG FID needed ie. like #LNGCanada Phase 2. #OOTT #NatGas”.  Australia no longer sees supply exceeding demand thru 2026.  In their March forecast, Australia said “Nonetheless, given the large scale expansion of global LNG capacity in recent years, demand is expected to remain short of total supply throughout the projection period.”  Note this is thru 2026 ie. a LNG supply surplus thru 2026.  But on June 28, Australia changed that LNG outlook and now says the LNG market may tighten beyond 2023.  Interestingly, the June forecast only goes to 2023 and not to 2026 as in March. Hmmm!  On Monday, they said “Given the large scale expansion of global LNG capacity in recent years, import demand is expected to remain short of export capacity throughout the outlook period. Beyond 2023, the global LNG market may tighten, due to the April 2021 decision to indefinitely suspend the Mozambique LNG project, in response to rising security issues. This project has an annual nameplate capacity of 13 million tonnes, and was previously expected to start exporting LNG in 2024.”  13 million tonnes is 1.7 bcf/d so they are only referring to Total Mozambique LNG Phase 1. So no surprise the change is Mozambique LNG driven but we have to believe the reason why they cut their forecast off this time at 2023 is that they are looking at trying to figure out what to forecast beyond 2023 in addition to Total Phase 1.  And, importantly, we believe they will be changing their LNG forecast for more than Mozambique ie. India demand that we highlight later in the blog.  They didn’t say anything else specific on Mozambique but, surely they have to also be delaying the follow on Total Phase 2 of 1.3 bcf/d and Exxon Rozuma Phase 1 of 2.0 bcf/d.

Clearly Asian LNG buyers did the math, saw the new LNG supply gap and were working the phones in March/April/May trying to lock up long term supply.  We wrote extensively on the Total Mozambique LNG situation before the April 26 force majeure as it was obvious that delays were coming to a project counted on for first LNG in 2024.  Total had shut down Phase 1 development in December for 3 months due to the violence and security risks. It restarted development on Wed March 24, violence/attacks immediately resumed for 3 consecutive days, and then Total suspended development on Sat March 27.  That’s why no one should have been surprised by the April 26 force majeure.  Asian LNG buyers were also seeing this and could easily do the same math we were doing and saw a bigger and sooner LNG supply gap.  They were clearly working the phones with a new priority to lock up long term LNG supply. Major long term deals don’t happen overnight, so it makes sense that we started to see these new Asian long term LNG deals start at the end of June.

A big pivot from trying to renegotiate down long term LNG deals or being happy to let long term contracts expire and replace with spot/short term LNG deals. This is a major pivot or abrupt turn on the Asian LNG buyers contracting strategy for the 2020s.  There is the natural reduction of long term contracts as contracts reach their term.  But with the weakness in LNG prices in 2019 and 2020, Asian LNG buyers weren’t trying to extend long term contracts, rather, the push was to try to renegotiate down its long term LNG deals.  The reason was clear, as spot prices for LNG were way less than long term contract prices.  And this led to their LNG contracting strategy – move to increase the proportion of spot LNG deliveries out of total LNG deliveries. Shell’s LNG Outlook 2021 was on Feb 25, 2021 and included the below graphs.  The spot LNG price derivation from long term prices in 2019 and 2020 made sense for Asian LNG buyers to try to change their contract mix.  Yesterday, Maeil Business News Korea reported on the new Qatar/Kogas long term LNG deal with its report “Korea may face LNG supply cliff or pay hefty price after long-term supplies run out[LINK], which highlighted this very concept – Korea wasn’t worried about trying to extend expiring long term LNG contracts.  Maeil wrote “Seoul in 2019 secured a long-term LNG supply contract with the U.S. for annual 15.8 million tons over a 15-year period. But even with the latest two LNG supply contracts, the Korean government needs extra 6 million tons or more of LNG supplies to keep up the current power pipeline.  By 2024, Korea’s long-term supply contracts for 9 million tons of LNG will expire – 4.92 million tons on contract with Qatar and 4.06 million tons from Oman, according to a government official who asked to be unnamed.”

Asian LNG buyers moving to long term LNG deals provide financing capacity for brownfield LNG FIDs. We believe this abrupt change and return to long term LNG deals is even more important to LNG suppliers who want to FID new projects. The big LNG players like Shell can FID new LNG supply without new long term contracts as they can build into their supply options to fill their portfolio of LNG contracts.  But that doesn’t mean the big players don’t want long term LNG supply deals, as having long term LNG contracts provide better financing capacity for any LNG supplier.  It takes big capex for LNG supply and long term deals make the financing easier.

Four Asian buyer long term LNG deals in the last week.  It was pretty hard to miss a busy week for reports of new Asian LNG buyer long term LNG deals.  There were two deals from Qatar Petroleum, one from Petronas and one from BP.  The timing fits, it’s about 3 months after Total Mozambique LNG problems became crystal clear. And as noted later, there are indicators that more Asian buyer LNG deals are coming.

Petronas/CNOOC is 10 yr supply deal for 0.3 bcf/d.  On July 7, we tweeted [LINK] on the confirmation of a big positive to Cdn natural gas with the Petronas announcement [LINK] of a new 10 year LNG supply deal for 0.3 bcf/d with China’s CNOOC.  The deal also has special significance to Canada.  (i) Petronas said “This long-term supply agreement also includes supply from LNG Canada when the facility commences its operations by middle of the decade”.  This is a reminder of the big positive to Cdn natural gas in the next 3 to 4 years – the start up of LNG Canada Phase 1 is ~1.8 bcf/d capacity.  This is natural gas that will no longer be moving south to the US or east to eastern Canada, instead it will be going to Asia.  This will provide a benefit for all Western Canada natural gas.  (ii) First ever AECO linked LNG deal. It’s a pretty significant event for a long term Asia LNG deal to now have an AECO link.  Petronas wrote “The deal is for 2.2 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) for a 10-year period, indexed to a combination of the Brent and Alberta Energy Company (AECO) indices. The term deal between PETRONAS and CNOOC is valued at approximately USD 7 billion over ten years.”  2.2 MTPA is 0.3 bcf/d.  (iii) Reminds of LNG Canada’s competitive advantage for low greenhouse gas emissions. Petronas said “Once ready for operations, the LNG Canada project paves the way for PETRONAS to supply low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission LNG to the key demand markets in Asia.”

Qatar Petroleum/CPC (Taiwan) is 15 yr supply deal for 0.16 bcf/d. Pre Covid, Qatar was getting pressured to renegotiate lower its long term LNG contract prices. Now, it’s signing a 15 year deal.  On July 9, they entered in a new small long term LNG sales deal [LINK], a 15-yr LNG Sale and Purchase Agreement with CPC Corporation in Taiwan to supply it ~0.60 bcf/d of LNG.   LNG deliveries are set to begin in January 2022.  H.E. Minister for Energy Affairs & CEO of Qatar Petroleum Al-Kaabi said “We are pleased to enter into this long term LNG SPA, which is another milestone in our relationship with CPC, which dates back to almost three decades. We look forward to commencing deliveries under this SPA and to continuing our supplies as a trusted and reliable global LNG provider.”   The pricing was reported to be vs a basket of crudes.

BP/Guangzhou Gas, a 12-yr supply deal for 0.13 bcf/d. On July 9, there was a small long term LNG supply deal with BP and Guangzhou Gas (China). Argus reported [LINK] BP had signed a 12 year LNG supply deal with Guangzhou Gas (GG), a Chinese city’s gas distributor, which starts in 2022. The contract prices are to be linked to an index of international crude prices. Although GG typically gets its LNG from the spot market, it used a tender in late April for ~0.13 bcf/d  starting in 2022.    BP’s announcement looks to be for most of the tender, so it’s a small deal.  But it fit into the trend this week of seeing long term LNG supply deals to Asia.  This was intended to secure deliveries to the firm’s Xiaohudao import terminal which will become operational in August 2022.

Qatar/Korea Gas is a 20-yr deal to supply 0.25 bcf/d.  On Monday, Reuters reported [LINK]South Korea’s energy ministry said on Monday it had signed a 20-year liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply agreement with Qatar for the next 20 years starting in 2025. South Korea’s state-run Korea Gas Corp (036460.KS) will buy 2 million tonnes of LNG annually from Qatar Petroleum”.  There was no disclosure of pricing.

More Asian buyer long term LNG deals (ie. India) will be coming. There are going to be more Asian buyer long term LNG deals coming soon.  Our July 11, 2021 Energy Tidbits highlighted how India’s new petroleum minister Hardeep Singh Puri (appointed July 8) hit the ground running with what looks to be a priority to set the stage for more India long term LNG deals with Qatar.  On July 10, we retweeted [LINK]New India Petroleum Minister hits ground running.   What else w/ Qatar but #LNG. Must be #Puri setting stage for long term LNG supply deal(s). Fits sea change of buyers seeing #LNGSupplyGap (see SAF Apr 28 blog http://safgroup.ca) & wanting to tie up LNG supply. #OOTT”.  It’s hard to see any other conclusion after seeing what we call a sea change in LNG buyer mentality with a number of long term LNG deals this week. Puri tweeted [LINK]Discussed ways of further strengthening mutual cooperation between our two countries in the hydrocarbon sector during a warm courtesy call with Qatar’s Minister of State for Energy Affairs who is also the President & CEO of @qatarpetroleum HE Saad Sherida Al-Kaabi”.  As noted above, we believe there is a sea change in LNG markets that was driven by the delay in 5 bcf/d of LNG supply from Mozambique (Total Phase 1 & Phase 2, and Exxon Rozuma Phase 1) that was counted on all LNG supply projections for the 2020s.  Puri’s tweet seems to be him setting the stage for India long term LNG supply deals with Qatar.

Supermajors are aggressively competing to commit 30+ year capital to Qatar’s LNG expansion despite stated goal to reduce fossil fuels production. It’s not just Asian LNG buyers who are now once again committing long term capital to securing LNG supply, it’s also supermajors all bidding to be able to commit big capex to part of Qatar Petroleum’s 4.3 bcf/d LNG expansion. Qatar Petroleum received a lot of headlines following the their June 23 announcement on its LNG expansion [LINK] on how they received bids for double the equity being offered.  And there were multiple reports that these are on much tougher terms for Qatar’s partners.  Qatar Petroleum CEO Saad Sherida Al-Kaabi specifically noted that, among the bidders, were Shell, Total and Exxon.  Shell and Total have two of the most ambitious plans to reduce fossil fuels production in the 2020’s, yet are competing to allocate long term capital to increase fossil fuels production. And Shell and Total are also two of the global LNG supply leaders.  It has to be because they are seeing a bigger and sooner LNG supply gap.

Remember Qatar’s has a massive expansion but India alone needs 3x the Qatar expansion LNG capacity. In addition to the competition to be Qatar Petroleum’s partners, we remind that, while this is a massive 4.3 bcf/d LNG expansion, India alone sees its LNG import growing by ~13 bcf/d to 2030.  The Qatar announcement reminded they see a LNG supply gap and continued high LNG prices. We had a 3 part tweet.  (i) First, we highlighted [LINK]1/3. #LNGSupplyGap coming. big support for @qatarpetroleum  expansion to add 4.3 bcf/d LNG. but also say “there is a lack of investments that could cause a significant shortage in gas between 2025-2030”  #NatGas #LNG”.  This is after QPC accounts for their big LNG expansion. The QPC release said “However, His Excellency Al-Kaabi voiced concern that during the global discussion on energy transition, there is a lack of investment in oil and gas projects, which could drive energy prices higher by stating that “while gas and LNG are important for the energy transition, there is a lack of investments that could cause a significant shortage in gas between 2025-2030, which in turn could cause a spike in the gas market.”  (ii) Second, this is a big 4.3 bcf/d expansion, but India alone has 3x the increase in LNG import demand.  We tweeted [LINK]2/3. Adding 4.3 bcf/d is big, but dwarfed by items like India. #Petronet gave 1st specific forecast for what it means if #NatGas is to be 15% of energy mix by 2030 – India will need to increase #LNG imports by ~13 bcf/d.  See SAF Group June 20 Energy Tidbits memo.”  (iii) Third, Qatar’s supply gap warning is driven by the lack of investments in LNG supply.  We agree, but note that the lack of investment is in great part due to the delays in both projects under construction and in FIDs that were supposed to be done in 2019.  We tweeted [LINK] “3/3. #LNGSupplyGap is delay driven. $TOT Mozambique Phase 1 delay has chain effect, backs up 5 bcf/d. See SAF Group Apr 28 blog Multiple Brownfield LNG FIDs Now Needed To Fill New #LNG Supply Gap From Mozambique Chaos? How About LNG Canada Phase 2? #NatGas.”

Seems like many missed India’s first specific LNG forecast to 2030. Our June 20, 2021 Energy Tidbits memo highlighted the first India forecast that we have seen to estimate the required growth in natural gas consumption and LNG imports if India is to meet its target for natural gas to be 15% of its energy mix by 2030. India will need to increase LNG imports by ~13 bcf/d or 3 times the size of the Qatar LNG expansion. Our June 6, 2021 Energy Tidbits noted the June 4 tweet from India’s Energy Minister Dharmendra Pradhan [LINK] reinforcing the 15% goal “We are rapidly deploying natural gas in our energy mix with the aim to increase the share of natural gas from the current 6% to 15% by 2030.”  But last week, Petronet CEO AK Singh gave a specific forecast. Reuters report “LNG’s share of Indian gas demand to rise to 70% by 2030: Petronet CEO” [LINK] included Petronet’s forecast if India is to hit its target for natural gas to be 15% of energy mix by 2030.  Singh forecasts India’s natural gas consumption would increase from current 5.5 bcf/d to 22.6 bcf/d in 2030. And LNG shares would increase from 50% to 70% of natural gas consumption ie. an increase in LNG imports of ~13 bcf/d from just under 3 bcf/d to 15.8 bcf/d in 2030.  Singh did not specifically note his assumption for India’s natural gas production, but we can back into the assumption that India natural gas production grows from just under 3 bcf/d to 6.8 bcf/d. It was good to finally see India come out with a specific forecast for 2030 natural gas consumption and LNG imports if India is to get natural gas to 15% of its energy mix in 2030.  Petronet’s Singh forecasts India natural gas consumption to increase from 5.5 bcf/d to 22.6 bcf/d in 2030.  This forecast is pretty close to our forecast in our Oct 23, 2019 blog “Finally, Some Visibility That India Is Moving Towards Its Target For Natural Gas To Be 15% Of Its Energy Mix By 2030”.  Here part of what we wrote in Oct 2019.  “It’s taken a year longer than we expected, but we are finally getting visibility that India is taking significant steps towards India’s goal to have natural gas be 15% of its energy mix by 2030.  On Wednesday, we posted a SAF blog [LINK] “Finally, Some Visibility That India Is Moving Towards Its Target For Natural Gas To Be 15% Of Its Energy Mix By 2030”.  Our 2019 blog estimate was for India natural gas demand to be 24.0 bcf/d in 2030 (vs Singh’s 22.6 bcf/d) and for LNG import growth of +18.4 bcf/d to 2030 (vs Singh’s +13 bcf/d).  The difference in LNG would be due to our Oct 2019 forecast higher natural gas consumption by 1.4 bcf/d plus Singh forecasting India natural gas production +4 bcf/d to 2030.  Note India production peaked at 4.6 bcf/d in 2010.

Bigger, nearer LNG supply gap + Asian buyers moving to long term LNG deals = LNG players forced to at least look at what brownfield LNG projects they could advance and move to FID. All we have seen since our April 28 blog is more validation of the bigger, nearer LNG supply gap.  And now market participants (Asian LNG buyers) are reacting to the new data by locking up long term supply. Cheniere noted how the pickup in commercial engagement means they “are quite optimistic over the coming 12-18 months to make a substantial dent in that Stage 3 commercialization.”  Cheniere can’t be the only LNG supplier having new commercial discussions. It’s why we believe the Mozambique delays + Asian LNG buyers moving to long term deals will effectively force major LNG players to look to see if there are brownfield LNG projects they should look to advance.  Prior to March/April, no one would think Shell or other major LNG players would be considering any new LNG FIDs in 2021.  Covid forced all the big companies into capital reduction mode and debt reduction mode. But Brent oil is now solidly over $70, and LNG prices are over $13 this summer and the world’s economic and oil and gas demand outlook are increasing with vaccinations.  And we are starting to see companies move to increasing capex with the higher cash flows. The theme in Q3 reporting is going to be record or near record oil and gas cash flows, reduced debt levels and increasing returns to shareholders. And unless new mutations prevent vaccinations from returning the world to normal, we suspect that major LNG players, like other oil and gas companies, will be looking to increase capex as they approve 2022 budgets.  The outlook for the future has changed dramatically in the last 8 months.  The question facing major LNG players like Shell is should they look to FID new LNG brownfield projects in the face of an increasing LNG supply gap that is going to hit faster and harder and Asian LNG buyers prepared to do long term deals.  We expect these decisions to be looked at before the end of 2021 for 2022 capex budget/releases.  One wildcard that could force these decisions sooner is the already stressed out global supply chain. We have to believe that discussion there will be pressure for more Asian LNG buyer long term deals sooner than later.

For Canada, does the increasing LNG supply gap provide the opportunity to at least consider a LNG Canada Phase 2 FID over the next 6 months?  Our view on Shell and other LNG players is unchanged since our April 28 blog. Shell is no different than any other major LNG supplier in always knowing the market and that the oil and gas outlook is much stronger than 9 months ago. Even 3 months post our April 28 blog, we haven’t heard any significant talks on how major LNG players will be looking at FID for new brownfield LNG projects. We don’t have any inside contacts at Shell or LNG Canada, but that is no different than when we looked at the LNG markets in September 2017 and saw the potential for Shell to FID LNG Canada in 2018. We posted a September 20, 2017 blog “China’s Plan To Increase Natural Gas To 10% Of Its Energy Mix Is A Global Game Changer Including For BC LNG[LINK]. Last time, it was a demand driven supply gap, this time, it’s a supply driven supply gap.  We have to believe any major LNG player, including Shell, will be at least looking at their brownfield LNG project list and seeing if they should look to advance FID later in 2021.  Shell has LNG Canada Phase 2, which would add 2 additional trains or approx. 1.8 bcf/d. And an advantage to an FID would be that Shell would be able to commit to its existing contractors and fabricators for a continuous construction cycle following on LNG Canada Phase 1 ie. to help keep a lid on capital costs. We believe maintaining a continuous construction cycle is even more important given the stressed global supply chain. No one is talking about the need for these new brownfield LNG projects, but, unless some major change in views happen, we believe its inevitable that these brownfield LNG FID internal discussions will be happening in H2/21. Especially since the oil and gas price outlook is much stronger than it was in the fall and companies will be looking to increase capex in 2022 budgets.

A LNG Canada Phase 2 would be a big plus to Cdn natural gas.  LNG Canada Phase 1 is a material natural gas development as its 1.8 bcf/d capacity represents approx. 20 to 25% of Cdn gas export volumes to the US.  The EIA data shows US pipeline imports of Cdn natural gas as 6.83 bcf/d in 2020, 7.36 bcf/d in 2019, 7.70 bcf/d in 2018, 8.89 bcf/d in 2017, 7.97 bcf/d in 2016, 7.19 bcf/d in 2015 and 7.22 bcf/d in 2014.  A LNG Canada Phase 2 FID would be a huge plus for Cdn natural gas. It would allow another ~1.8 bcf/d of Cdn natural gas to be priced against pricing points other than Henry Hub. And it would provide demand offset versus Trudeau if he moves to make electricity “emissions free” and not his prior “net zero emissions”. Mozambique has been a game changer to LNG outlook creating a bigger and sooner LNG supply gap. And with a stronger tone to oil and natural gas prices in 2021, the LNG supply gap will at least provide the opportunity for Shell to consider FID for its brownfield LNG Canada Phase 2 and provide big support to Cdn natural gas for the back half of the 2020s. And perhaps if LNG Canada is exporting 3.6 bcf/d from two phases, it could help flip Cdn natural gas to a premium vs US natural gas especially if Biden is successful in reducing US domestic natural gas consumption for electricity. The next six months will be very interesting to watch for LNG markets and Cdn natural gas valuations. Imagine the future value of Cdn natural gas is there was visibility for 3.6 bcf/d of Western Canada natural gas to be exported to Asia.